In 1986 Congress established the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 in response to mounting personal injury and death lawsuits against vaccine manufacturers. The weight of these lawsuits threatened to bankrupt the vaccine program, which the US government viewed as a risk they did not want to take. With the NCVIA in place the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program was established to regulate the “no-fault” legal compensation alternative. This special court system is funded by tax dollars and leaves vaccine manufacturers off the hook for liability for their products.
You can read over the legal documents here.
Check out what NVIC has to say about it here.
And HRSA weighing in here.